"All these management consultants, planning departments, and efficiency experts relied on the mathematics of the average to conduct their analyses. Managers believed in treating each worker like a cell on a spreadsheet, as a number in a column, an interchangeable Average Man. It was not very difficult to convince managers that individuality did not matter, since it made their job easier and more secure. After all, if you make decisions about people using types and ranks, you will not be right every time but you will tend to be right on average, and that was good enough. On those occasions where managers did make a wrong decision about an employee, they could simply blame the employee for not fitting into the system."